Which registers are used to protect the main memory?

Which register is used for memory protection?

Every memory address used by a process should be first checked to see whether it falls within the range of memory area that is allocated to the process. Two special purpose registers-lower bound register (LBR) and upper bound register (UBR) are used to implement memory protection.

What are the two registers to protect memory in OS?

This is usually implemented using a base register and a limit register for each process, as shown in Figures 8.1 and 8.2 below. Every memory access made by a user process is checked against these two registers, and if a memory access is attempted outside the valid range, then a fatal error is generated.

How can we protect the memory?


  1. Segmentation.
  2. Paged virtual memory.
  3. Protection keys.
  4. Protection rings.
  5. Simulated segmentation.
  6. Capability-based addressing.
  7. Dynamic tainting.

Which registers helps to minimize the main memory references?

The registers in the processor serve two functions: User-visible registers:These enable the assembly-language programmer to minimize main memory references by optimizing the use of registers.

What are various ways for memory and address protection?

Some methods to prevent it is:

  • Fence: We confine users to inside of the memory and system memory to another side. …
  • Relocation. Programs are written as if starting from location 0 in the memory. …
  • Base/bounds register. …
  • Segmentation. …
  • Paging. …
  • Paging +segmentation combined.
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How many types of segment registers are there?

The 8086 has four special segment registers: cs, ds, es, and ss. These stand for Code Seg- ment, Data Segment, Extra Segment, and Stack Segment, respectively. These registers are all 16 bits wide. They deal with selecting blocks (segments) of main memory.

What is the main memory used for?

The main memory acts as the central storage unit in a computer system. It is a relatively large and fast memory which is used to store programs and data during the run time operations. The primary technology used for the main memory is based on semiconductor integrated circuits.

What is main memory in OS?

The main memory in a computer is called Random Access Memory. It is also known as RAM. This is the part of the computer that stores operating system software, software applications and other information for the central processing unit (CPU) to have fast and direct access when needed to perform tasks.

What is physical memory protection?

Physical memory protection (PMP) is a standard RISC-V feature that allows the firmware to specify physical memory regions and control the memory access permissions. Many systems have adopted PMP to protect memory regions for high-privilege binaries (e.g., firmware) or devices.

Why is memory protection necessary?

The main purpose of memory protection is to prevent a process from accessing memory that has not been allocated to it. This prevents a bug or malware within a process from affecting other processes, or the operating system itself.

What is memory isolation?

A technique that prohibits one program in memory from accidentally clobbering another active program in memory. Using various methods, a protective boundary is created around the program, and instructions within the program are prohibited from referencing data outside of that boundary.

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